PDF | The main aim of the project is to detect the metal near by to the sensor. Whenever the metal is brought near the sensor (inductor) a. Metal Detector-Project Report - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. The document contain's the basic circuit of a metal detector,data. Rahul Metal Detector Full Report - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read Certificate that this project report “Metal Detector” is the Bonafide work of.
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This thesis report provides an introductory background on the Metal Detector By SHANJEDUL HASSAN Page |2 Introduction Our project of metal detector is a . Later, I built various different metal detectors from plans published in electronics magazines. search coil as part of its resonant circuit. Its frequency depends. I declare that this report entitled ''Metal Detector'' is my own work except as cited in the During the development of my graduation project in the University of.
If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the coil. Consumer-oriented metal detectors provide millions of people around the world with an opportunity to discover hidden treasures along with lots of junk.
Metal-detector technology is a huge part of our lives. Metal detectors are also used to detect foreign bodies in food. If another coil is used to measure the magnetic field acting as a magnetometer. A wire wound resistor. The unit for measuring resistance is the OHM.
Metal film or metal oxide resistors are made much the same way. A carbon composition resistor has resistive carbon packed into a ceramic cylinder. Resistors are primarily used to create and maintain maintain known safe currents within electrical components The amount of resistance offered by a resistor is determined by its physical construction. Those used for applications that must withstand high temperatures are typically made of materials such as cermets.
Resistor symbols. Higher resistance values are represented by "k" kilo-ohms ohms and M Meg ohms.
Metal Detector Circuit
It has two terminals across which electricity must pass. They are normally used to smooth a current in a circuit.
Non-electrolytic electrolytic capacitors usually have a lower capacitance. Capacitor symbol. In its simplest form. Capacitance also depends on the dielectric constant of the substance separating the plates.
They are not polarized and can be placed anyway round in a circuit. The capacitance is directly proportional to the surface areas of the plates. The track may be made from carbon. The track is usually rotary but straight track versions. They are specified by their maximum resistance. Variable resistors are often called potentiometers in books and catalogues. Variable resistors may be used as a rheostat with two connections the wiper and just one end of the track or as a potentiometer with all three connections in use.
Miniature versions called presets are made for setting up circuits which will not require further adjustment. The ideal use of copper is achieved by foils. COIL An electromagnetic coil or simply a "coil" is formed when a conductor usually an insulated solid copper wire is wound around a core or form to create an inductor or electromagnet.
A transformer is an electromagnetic device that has a primary winding and a secondary winding that transfers energy from one electrical circuit to another by inductive coupling without moving parts. Multilayer coils have the problem of interlayer capacitance. A completed coil assembly with taps is often called a winding. As self induction is larger for larger coil diameter the current in a thick wire tries to flow on the inside. Coils are often coated with varnish or wrapped with insulating tape to provide additional insulation and secure them in place.
When electricity is passed through a coil. One loop of wire is usually referred to as a turn. Sometimes this means that a spiral is a better alternative. The coil tap s are points in a wire coil where a conductive patch has been exposed usually on a loop of wire that extends out of the main coil body.
A coil tap is a wiring feature found on some electrical transformers. For use in an electronic circuit. The term tickler coil usually refers to a feedback coil.
WORKING Metal detectors work on the principle of transmitting a magnetic field and analyzing a return signal from the target and environment. The magnetic transmitter is in the form of a transmit coil with a varying electric current fl owing through it produced by transmit electronics.
Metal Detector-Project Report
This changing transmitted magnetic field causes electric currents to flow in metal targets. The receiver is in the form of a receive coil connected to receive and signal processing electronics.
The transmit coil and receive coil are sometimes the same coil. The transmitted magnetic field varies in time. Transmit signal from the electronics causes transmit electrical current in transmit coil. These electric currents are called eddy currents. The regenerated magnetic field from the eddy currents causes an alternating voltage signal at the receive coil. This is amplified by the electronics because relatively deeply buried targets produce signals in the receive coil which can be millions of times weaker than the signal in the transmit coil.
In summary: It is the altered shape of this regenerated magnetic field that metal detectors use to detect metal targets. This field is altered compared to the transmitted field. As with most introductions. Electrical current in the transmit coil causes a transmitted magnetic field.
Receive coil detects the magnetic field generated by eddy currents as a very small voltage.
Signal from receive coil is amplified by receive electronics. Eddy currents generate a magnetic field.
Because it is the same shape as the transmit field. Both the target X and R signals vary depending on the distance of the target from the coil. Transmitted magnetic field causes electrical currents to flow in metal targets called eddy currents. The signal induced in the receive coil.
These X and R signals magnitudes are further processed to give an output signal which may be reported to an operator in a number of different ways. The same applies to the R signal. For example. In metal detectors. A ground balanced audio signal. Most discriminating metal detectors also have a visual display which indicates properties of a detected metal target. These properties may be varied by a metal detector operator varying the controls of the metal detector.
Applications 1. Metal detectorists may be dedicated to preserving historical artifacts. Their excavation and preservation is greatly facilitated due to metal detectors. Archaeology Many historic artifacts from post Paleolithic age are metallic. These valuable items which generally include pots. Metal detecting is very similar to coin shooting except that the metal detectorist is after any type of historical artifact.
Prospecting is looking for valuable metals like gold and silver in their natural forms.
Metal Detector Circuit Diagram and Working
Serious coin shooters will spend hours. Hobbies Coin shooting is looking for coins after an event involving many people. Security screening In common with the developments in other uses of metal detectors both alternating current and pulse systems are used. In systems such as the Metor appeared with the ability to indicate the approximate height of the metal object above the ground. Industrial metal detectors Industrial metal detectors are used in the pharmaceutical.
The next technique is called "Random searching".
Many dedicated beach hunters also familiarize themselves with tide movements and beach erosion. Beach hunting can be as simple or as complicated as one wishes to make it. Contamination of food by metal shards from broken processing machinery during the manufacturing process is.
There are two main techniques for beach hunting. Random searching is when you walk around the beach in no particular pattern. Inductor starts charging and when charge across the capacitor is nil, it draws charge from the inducutor in reverse polarity.
Then inductor charge is reduced and again the process repeats. Note inductor is a magnetic field storage device and capacitor is electric field storage device.
Proximity Sensor: The proximity sensor can detect the objects with out any physical interference. The proximity sensor will work same as infrared sensor, proximity also release a signal, it will not give output unless and until there is no change in the reflected back signal.
If there is a change in signal it will detect and give the output accordingly. There are different proximity sensors for example to detect plastic material we can use capacitive type proximity and for metals we should use inductive type. When the LC circuit detects any resonating frequency from any metal which is near to it, electric field will be created which will lead to induces current in the coil and changes in the signal flow through the coil.
Variable resistor is used to change the proximity sensor value equal to the LC circuit, it is better to check the value when the coil is not near any metal object. When the metal is detected, the LC circuit will have changed signal.
Metal Detector Circuit
The output of the proximity sensor will less than 1mA when there is no metal detected and it will be around 10mA usually greater than 8mA when coil is near to the metal. When the output pin is high, the resistor R3 will provide positive voltage to transistor Q1. Q1 will be turned on and LED will glow not shown in the circuit and buzzer will be activated.
Advantages The Proximity Detector IC TDA based Metal Detector Circuit is a very simple and easy to construct metal detector that can be used to detect small metals in our homes, offices and gardens. There is need for any microcontroller as the Proximity Sensor will be sufficient to implement the project. Disadvantages The main disadvantage of this Metal Detector Circuit is the range of detection. The metal object has to be at a distance of 10mm for the detector to detect it.
Applications This simple Metal Detector can be used to identify metals like iron, gold, silver etc. Since it is a simple project, we can use this in our home to scan for nails, metal scraps etc. Related Posts:.TDA Stereo Amplifier. Archaeology Many historic artifacts from post Paleolithic age are metallic. This is amplified by the electronics because relatively deeply buried targets produce signals in the receive coil which can be millions of times weaker than the signal in the transmit coil, and thus need to be amplified to a reasonable level for the electronics to be able to process.
Verifying Gold for authenticity It is known that glitters is not always gold. It reports the result of the product evaluation and makes recommendation for improvement.
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